1. C Morris-Clapp1, S Yeganech1, E Lynch1 and M Grootveld2.
(Department of Conservative Dentistry1, and Inflammation Research Group2, LHMC UK).
AN IN VITRO STUDY TO TEST THE EFFICACY OF FIVE WHITENING AGENTS.
Journal of Dental Research 73: 866, 354, 1995.
Home bleaching systems are in use in both the UK and North America, the majority of which are based on carbamide peroxide. Many ‘over-the-counter’ brands are now available to whiten teeth. We tested the efficacy of the lightening capacity of five brands of these agents by rating and ranking their whitening effects on sectioned, freshly extracted teeth. Ten teeth were sectioned and tested in each group and the results assessed blind by three operators.
The agents tested were:- (1) 2% sodium chlorite1; (2) 0.3% carbamide peroxide, 0.5% sodium peroxodisulphate, 0.5% bromelain and 0.125% papain (Janina Liquid Toothpaste Spray1); (3) 0.3% carbamide peroxide, 0.5% sodium peroxodisulphate, 0.5% bromelain and 0.125% papain (Janina Opale Whitening Toothpaste1); (4) 0.1% chlorine dioxide mouthwash (retarDEX2); (5) 2% sodium chlorate, 0.125% papain (Dental White3).
The results in descending order of whitening efficacy on intrinsic staining were: Janina Liquid Toothpaste1; Janina Opale Whitening Toothpaste1; 2% sodium chlorite1; retarDEX2; Dental White3. The control (H2O, pH 7.0) had no effect. The results in descending order of whitening efficacy on extrinsic staining were: Janina Liquid Toothpaste Spray1; Janina Opale Whitening Toothpaste1; 2% sodium chlorite1. The other agents failed to remove extrinsic staining.
This study showed that Janina Liquid Toothpaste Spray and Opale Whitening Toothpaste were the most effective tooth whitening agents.
1. Janina International UK. 2. Rowpar Pharmaceuticals, USA. 3Medex, UK.
2. K Seymour, C Morris-Clapp, N Patsias, P Patsias and E Lynch.
(The London Hospital Medical College, London, E1 2AD, UK).
SHADE MODIFICATION USING A TOOTH WHITENING DENTRIFICE OVER SIX MONTHS.
Journal of Dental Research 74, British Society for Dental Research Annual Meeting 415, 1996.
Much media attention has recently been concentrated on a number of new multi-component dentrifices which claim to have tooth whitening action. In this clinical trial one such dentrifice1 was tested for its ability to modify tooth shade as part of a wider double-blind clinical trial. Sixty seven patients from a general dental practice were recruited and asked to brush twice daily for three minutes with either active1 or placebo dentrifice for a period of six months. The placebo dentrifice was formulation as the active product except that flouride was the only ‘active’ ingredient present. A standard Vita2 shade of each subject’s upper anterior teeth was taken at baseline and six months by two operators to achieve agreement. Vita shades were assigned a numerical score of 1-16 according to colour value, and data analysed. The test group (n=47) showed a mean ± SE change of shade value of 1.75 ± 0.30 whilst the placebo group (n=20) showed a change of 1.00 ± 0.33, and this shade lightening effect is significant (P<0.05). The shade lightening seen in the placebo group may be surprising but could be as a result of regular toothbrushing following the formal oral hygiene education given as part of the trial. The whitening effect of the test dentrifice1 gives a satisfactory amount of tooth whitening for clinical use. The data from this clinical trial indicates that the test dentrifice1 exhibits tooth whitening ability over a six month period. 1. Janina International UK. 2. Vita Lumin, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany. 3. D Samarwickrama1, M C Grootveld2, A Sheerin2 and E Lynch1. (Conservative Dentistry1 and Inflammation Research Group2. LHMC, UK). MULTICOMPONENT EVALUATIONS OF THE OXIDISING ACTIONS OF A TOOTH WHITENING DENTRIFICE. Journal of Dental Research 73: 872, 403, 1995. The nature, rate and extent of salivary reductant consumption (e.g. that of pyruvate, urate, thiocyanate, etc.) by oxidants present in tooth whitening preparations reflect their oxidising capacity, a parameter of much relevance to their therapeutic and aesthetic actions. Therefore, high resolution proton (1H) NMR analysis was used to investigate chemical modifications arising from equilibration of human saliva with a newly-developed dentrifice3 containing carbamide peroxide [CP, 0.30% (W/W)] and peroxodisulphate [S2O82-, 0.50% (W/W)]. Unstimulated human saliva samples obtained from volunteers (n=10) were centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and an aqueous supernatant prepared from the dentrifice product added. The mixtures were incubated for six hours prior to 1H NMR analysis. The results obtained demonstrated (1) complete consumption of salivary pyruvate (from a mean value of 1.30 X 10-4 mol/dm-3 in the untreated samples) by dentrifice-derived oxidants (e.g. H2O2), an oxidative decarboxylation reaction liberating acetate and CO2, and (2) binding of dentrifice components (e.g. triclosan and methylparaben) by salivary macromolecules. In conclusion, high resolution 1H NMR analysis of human saliva provides much useful information regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with the therapeutic actions of active agents present in a commercially-available tooth whitening formulation. 3. Janina Opale Whitening Toothpaste. British Dental Association In July 1999, the EEC imposed a ban on cosmetic oral hygiene products stating that they must not contain more than 0.1% hydrogen peroxide, so dentists were banned from bleaching their patient's teeth. If they are not oral hygiene products then they cannot contain any hydrogen peroxide. In short this now means that Janina Opale and Diamond Whitening Toothpaste and the Liquid Toothpaste Spray are the only patented whitening product on the market to contain levels of hydrogen peroxide which are safely within the government guidelines.